Kinetic Chain Exercises Linking the Shoulder and Hip

Overhead activities such as throwing require proper sequencing of different body parts.   The lower body, trunk, shoulder, arm, and hands are considered links in a chain.  If any of these links are not functioning properly, the chain is compromised.  Effectively using the body as a kinetic chain maximizes overhead athletic performance and reduces injury risk.  Shoulder rehabilitation programs now integrate the kinetic chain theory for a broader approach versus focusing only on isolated muscles.

Exercises targeting the shoulder muscles receive a great deal of attention in overhead athletes and rightfully so.  The rotator cuff and scapular muscles are important for dissipating high forces created from throwing.  However, most of the energy created during throwing occurs from the lower body and trunk.  Weak links in the lower body often result in additional stress to the shoulder and elbow during throwing.  Therefore, including exercises that incorporate all links of the kinetic chain are beneficial.

lower body strength throwing

 

Lower body exercises such as the squat and lunge can be integrated with common shoulder rehabilitation exercises.  Total body exercises which incorporate resistance bands or tubing are ideal for integrating links of the kinetic chain.  This article described only 3 exercise examples.  However, there are many other variations which can be developed based on the athlete’s profile and goals.

Overhead Squat with “Y”

Stand holding a resistance band in both hands with the shoulders flexed and elbows straight.  Perform an overhead “Y” by raising both hands with the elbows straight.   Maintain this overhead “Y” position as you perform an overhead squat.  Try to reach a maximum depth of the squat without compromising the upper-body position.  Maintain the overhead “Y” until completion of the set.  Perform 8 to 10 repetitions per set.  This exercise integrates the gluteus maximus, rotator cuff, low back muscles, and trapezius.

Lunge with “T”

Stand holding a resistance band in both hands with the shoulders flexed and elbows straight.  Perform a “T” with both arms by pulling the hands and shoulder blades back with the elbow straight.   Once in the “T” position, perform a reverse lunge with one leg.  The “T” position is maintained until one alternating repetition is performed on each leg.  Reset the “T” before completing the next repetition.  Perform 6 to 8 slow and controlled repetitions on each side.  This exercise activates the gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, lats, and trapezius.

Lateral Band Walk with “W”

Perform an exaggerated sideways walk with a resistance band just above the knees. Remain in an athletic position keeping the toes pointed straight ahead.  It is important to push the knees apart against the resistance band in order to activate the hip muscles.  The shoulder blade and rotator cuff muscles are activated by using a second resistance band in the hands.  Make a “W” with the elbows in order to achieve scapular retraction.  Take 3 steps to the right followed by 3 steps back to the starting position.   Also, think about pulling the elbows to the opposite back pocket.  Perform 6 to 8 slow and controlled repetitions to each side.  This exercise activates the gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, rotator cuff, and lower trapezius.

Closing Thoughts

Combining lower body exercises with traditional shoulder rehabilitation exercises is beneficial for overhead athletes.  Muscles throughout the entire body function in a coordinated sequence during baseball and softball throwing.  Resistance bands have gained popularity in the baseball and softball communities as part of pre-throwing routines and strength and conditioning programs. These shoulder-focused exercises train only a limited number of links in the kinetic chain.   A wiser approach is to integrate upper body resistance band exercises with dynamic, full-body exercises.  Talk to your physical therapist if you are unsure about which exercises are best for you.

 

 


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