The gluteus maximus is the largest muscle of the hip and buttock.¬† It functions to maintain an erect standing posture and to extend the hip joint.¬† The gluteus maximus is regarded as one of the strongest muscles in the body.¬† Strength of the gluteus maximus is required to walk with an upright posture, stand up from a chair, climb stairs, run, jump, and throw a ball.¬† Weakness is associated with low back pain, knee pain, hip arthritis, and poor balance.¬† Gluteus maximus exercises are often prescribed for hip arthritis, hip impingement, iliotobial band syndrome, low back pain, patellofemoral pain, and many other overuse injuries.
Exercises start in non-weight bearing positions such as lying on the back or kneeling. ¬†¬†It is recommended that each of these basic exercises is initiated with 3 sets of 8 to 15 repetitions.¬† When 15 repetitions can be performed, the intensity of the exercise can be progressed by adding weight or increasing the resistance band strength.¬† Muscle strength and hypertrophy can be achieved with any range of repetitions.¬† However, to optimize strength, higher intensities with lower repetitions are needed.¬†¬† Each exercise should be performed 2 to 3 times per week to optimize improvements in muscular endurance, strength, and hypertrophy.¬† The main objective of this strengthening program is to progressively overload the gluteus maximus so muscular control, endurance and strength are developed in a systematic manner.
The bridge is a great hip extension exercise to start with.¬† Begin by lying on your back with the hips flexed and the feet lined up with the shoulders.¬† Perform the bridge by lifting both hips from the floor.¬† A common mistake is to excessively arch the low back.¬† Hold the bridge position for 2 seconds then return to the starting position.¬† Lower the body back down in a slow and controlled manner.
Be sure to achieve the bridge position by extending through the hips.¬† If you lack mobility in your hip joints or hip flexor muscles this may lead to compensation through the low back.¬† This can be corrected with manual therapy and mobility exercises. ¬†You can also try bringing your fleet slightly closer together and the knees slightly wider apart.¬† This will allow you to achieve greater hip extension range of motion.
Cook Hip Lift
Begin by lying on the back with your hips flexed and feet lined up with the shoulders.¬†¬† Flex the hip by holding one knee to the chest.¬† It is helpful to place a small towel roll or ball in the crease of your hip.¬† Lift your toes off the floor and perform a bridge from one leg.¬† A common mistake is to excessively arch the low back.¬† Be sure to achieve the bridge position by extending through the hips.¬† ¬†Hold this position for 2 seconds then return to the starting position.¬† Lower the body back down before repeating another repetition on the same side.¬† Complete the desired number of repetitions on one side before beginning with the other leg.
The positioning of the hips during this exercise facilitates a neutral pelvis and low back position.¬† This is helpful for people with a history of low back pain.¬† However, this also increases the challenge to the gluteus muscles compared to a standard bridge. ¬†¬†Raising the toes makes you press your heel into the ground as you lift your hips. This facilitates the glutes and hamstrings.
Quadruped Hip Extension with Knee Flexion
Begin on the hands and knees.¬† The shoulders are positioned directly over the hands.¬† The hips are positioned directly over the knees.¬† The spine is maintained in a neutral position throughout the exercise.¬† Initiate the movement by flexing one knee to 90 degrees.¬† Next, lift the heel up towards the ceiling keeping the knee flexed.¬† It is important to avoid arching through the low back.¬† Hold this position for 2 seconds then return to the starting position.¬† Lower the leg back down before repeating another repetition on the same side.¬† Complete the desired number of repetitions on one side before beginning with the other leg.
Prone Plank with Hip Extension
Start facedown supported on the elbows in a plank position with the trunk, hips, and knees in neutral alignment.¬† Initiate the movement by lifting one leg with the knee bent.¬†¬† Extend the hip slightly past neutral by bringing the heel toward the ceiling.¬† Hold this position for 2 seconds.¬† Maintain the plank position throughout all repetitions on one side.¬† Complete the desired number of repetitions on one side before beginning with the other leg.¬† A common error with this exercise is to arch or overextend the spine when lifting the leg.¬† Also, as the abdominal muscles tire, the hips may rise.¬† Be sure to maintain a neutral trunk, hip, and knee alignment throughout the exercise.
Side Plank with Hip Abduction
Start side-lying supported on one elbow with the shoulders, hips, knees, and ankles in line. Rise to a side plank position with the hips off the floor to achieve neutral alignment of trunk, hips, and knees.¬† Maintain the side plank position and raise the top leg into abduction approximately 30 degrees.¬† Hold this position for 2 seconds then slowly lower the top leg. Maintain the plank position throughout all repetitions on one side.¬† Complete the desired number of repetitions on one side before beginning with the other leg.
A common error with this exercise is to allow the pelvis to tip forward or backward.¬† Also, as the top hip tires the abducting leg will move forward into flexion.¬† As the bottom side tires, the side plank position will be lost.¬† This exercise has been shown to activate the gluteus maximus and medius on both sides at very high levels.¬† It is also very challenging and may not be an option for everyone.
These 5 gluteus maximus exercises do not need to all be performed during the same session.¬† Start with 2 to 3 of the exercises.¬† Exercise selection is based on your preferences and the level of difficulty.¬† The bridge is the least challenging and side plank with hip abduction is the most challenging.¬† Within 6 to 8 weeks, the exercises may feel less challenging.¬† ¬†This means it is time for a progression.¬† Progression may include adding resistance or substituting with a new exercise.¬† Next week we will highlight 5 more exercises which can be performed in standing.