Gluteus Medius Exercise: Advanced Progressions

Athletes are required to perform explosive powerful movements during sport.  The hip muscles, including the gluteus medius, help generate and transfer forces during sport-specific activities such as running, cutting, and throwing.  These types of athletic demands require high intensity training in the gym.  Gluteus medius exercise which emphasize multiple planes of movement in single-leg or asymmetrical stances are advantageous for these demands.

The advanced exercise progressions included here should first be performed in a slow and controlled manner with an emphasis on technique.  As technique becomes adequate, the speed of movement and load can be increased.  Under any conditions, control of the movement and body positions are extremely important.  Remember, the primary function of the gluteus medius is to stabilize and control the position of the pelvis.  This is mandatory for the rest of the body to generate, transfer, and dissipate forces optimally.

Skater Squat

The skater squats begins by standing on one leg and performing a squat to a comfortable depth.  The depth is determined by the ability to maintain balance and good control of the trunk and entire lower extremity.  The non-weight bearing leg extends at the hip and flexes at the knee. The torso slightly twists and the arms swing reciprocally as if skating.  The toe of the non-weight bearing leg can touch the floor between repetitions if needed.  Hold the downward position for 2 seconds then return to the starting position.   Challenge to the gluteus medius can be increased by placing a resistance band around the thighs just above the knees.

Transverse Lunge

The transverse lunge starts standing with the feet near each other and hands on the hips.  Throughout the exercise the trunk is maintained in an upright position, so the knee and hip of the lunging leg can be flexed to 90°. This prevents the knee from moving forward past the toes.  Also, the knee remains over the toes so it does not cave inwards into valgus.  During the transverse lunge, the body is rotated 135° towards the lunging side.  This involves twisting behind the body and lunging in one motion.   Challenge to the gluteus medius can be increased by holding a dumbbell or kettlebell in the hand opposite the lunging leg.

Rear Foot Elevated Split Squat

The rear foot elevated, or Bulgarian, split squat is an excellent exercise to target the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, quadriceps, and hamstring muscles.  For this exercise, the rear foot is placed up on a 6 to 12 inch step or box.  The supporting leg should be positioned approximately one leg length in front of the box or step.  This may need to be adjusted based on comfort and balance.  However, it is important that the hip and knee of the front leg is able to flex to 90 degrees during the movement.

It is also important to maintain good upper body posture with a natural curve in the low back and the chest up.  This position should be maintained during the descent and ascent of the movement. Excessive trunk flexion or side bending are common errors.  The front knee should not move forward past the toes.  The knee should remain over the toes so it does not cave inwards into valgus.  Perform 8 to 10 slow and controlled repetitions before switching sides to the other leg.  Challenge to the gluteus medius can be increased by holding a dumbbell or kettlebell in the hand opposite the front leg.

Lateral Step Down

The step down exercise begins with the hands on the hips standing with one leg on the side of a step or 8-inch high box.  Maintain balance on 1 leg and slowly squat to lower the heel of the other leg toward floor.  Gently tap the heel and return to the start position.  Throughout the exercise the trunk is maintained in an upright position.  Avoid leaning the trunk to the side or waving the arms.  The knee should not move forward past the toes.  Also, the knee should remain over the toes so it does not cave inwards into valgus.  Perform 8 to 10 slow and controlled repetitions before switching sides to the other leg.

1-Leg Squat

 If the lateral step down can be performed with proper form, the next challenge is to progress to performing a single-leg squat.  Begin by balancing on one leg with the hands on the hips.  The non-weight bearing knee and hip are flexed in front to approximately 30°. Slowly lower toward the floor being sure to maintain control of the trunk and supporting leg.  The depth of the squat is determined by the ability to maintain balance and control the movement.  Return to the starting position and keep the knees over the toes to prevent knee valgus throughout the exercise.   This exercise can be performed with or without the assist of a chair.  Many times the chair is needed initially until control and strength improve.  Challenge to the gluteus medius can be increased by holding a dumbbell or kettl bell in the hand opposite the supporting leg.

Closing Thoughts

These five exercises require practice to perfect.  Often, a trainer or physical therapist is needed to coach an individual through these types of exercises.  These are higher level exercises which are not for everyone.  However, mastering these types of dynamic movements often translate to improved coordination, strength, and power on heavier compound lifts such as the squat or deadlift.  Team sport athletes often see improvements in explosiveness and agility on the field.  Unfortunately, many become frustrated with the amount of practice and effort it takes to perform these types of exercises.  If needed, regress back to perform less challenging exercises in non-weight bearing (here) or weight bearing positions (here).  This is all part of the process.  Be patient and stick with it and you will see results down the road.

Warm-Up to Optimize Training

Walk into any gym in the area and you are likely to see people who completely neglect the warm-up. Others spend 45 minutes or more on the foam roller, stretching with bands, or torturing themselves with lacrosse balls. So what is the deal with warming-up before a training session? The purpose of the warm-up is to prepare the body, mentally and physically, for the upcoming training session or for competition. When done properly, the warm-up can improve performance and in some instances, may lessen the risk of injury.

The positive effects of any warm-up are best achieved through an active form rather than passive or static stretching techniques. The positive effects of a warm-up can be achieved through temperature-related and non-temperature-related effects. Temperature-related effects include increased muscle temperature, core temperature, enhanced nervous system function, and improved connective tissue flexibility. Non–temperature-related effects include increased blood flow to muscles, improved oxygen consumption, and improved muscle contraction capabilities.

Other physiological and performance benefits of the warm-up include:

  • Faster muscle contraction and relaxation
  • Improvements in the rate of force development
  • Faster reaction time
  • Improvements in muscle strength and power
  • Lowered stiffness in muscles and joints
  • Improved oxygen delivery to working muscles
  • Increased blood flow to working muscles
  • Increased psychological preparedness

The Basic Components of an Effective Warm-Up

There are two basic phases to a well-designed warm-up before the start of a training session. These are the general warm-up and the specific warm-up. The general warm-up typically consists of 5 minutes of slow aerobic activity such as jogging, skipping, or cycling. The aim of this phase is to increase heart rate, blood flow, muscle temperature, respiration rate, and joint mobility. This phase is typically followed by a period of general stretching that aims to replicate the ranges of motion required for the upcoming training session. The specific warm-up

Typically incorporates movements similar to the movements of the athlete’s sport or training session. This should include rehearsal of the skill(s) to be performed. It is recommended the specific warm-up last 10 to 20 minutes with no more than 15 minutes between the end of the warm-up and start of activity (training session or competition).

The warm-up for a game or competition aims to maximize performance in the subsequent event. However, for the training session, in addition to optimizing acute performance during the session, the specific warm-up should contribute to the overall long-term development of the athlete. This is often an ideal time to incorporate individualized corrective exercise into an athlete’s program. For the baseball pitcher this may include rotator cuff activation exercises such as diagonal patterns with resistance bands.

Structuring the Warm-Up to Optimize Short and Long-Term Performance

Effective warm-ups should be thought of as an integral part of any training session, not as a separate entity.  Raise, Activate and Mobilize, and Potentiate (RAMP) is an acronym used to describe a more detailed structure for a warm-up2. This builds on the general and specific structure offering an approach which maximizes both acute and long-term performance.

Raise, refers to increasing the level of several physiological variables and the level of skill of the athlete. This phase is analogous to the general warm-up and aims to elevate body temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, blood flow, and joint mobility through low-intensity activities. General aerobic exercises, such as cycling or the elliptical trainer, are often inserted here. However, it is more beneficial to attempt to simulate the movement patterns of the upcoming activity or develop the movement patterns or skills the athlete will need to utilize within the sport. Instead of treadmill jogging before a squat session, the athlete can perform walking lunges to prepare physically and psychologically. In this way, the training session, from the start of the warm-up, is targeted at key movement patterns and skills and not just aerobic capacity.

Activating and mobilizing refers to the stretching component of a warm-up. Key movement patterns required for athletic performance in both the subsequent session and the athlete’s long-term development are performed. This might include corrective exercise for core stabilization or specific mobility. Static stretching may be incorporated as corrective exercise if specific deficits are identified. Baseball players can consider inserting static stretches for the lats, forearms, or rotator cuff. Any decrement in subsequent strength or power from static stretching is likely very short-lasting1.

Performing dynamic warm-up activities following static stretching will override any small transient performance decrements. The focus of mobility exercise is always on actively moving through a range of motion not static stretching. Dynamic stretching requires a combination of control, stability, and flexibility and more closely relates to the movement requirements an athlete will face in the training session or their sport. Dynamic stretches are extremely time-efficient compared to single muscle static stretches. Prior to overhead pressing with the bar, try warming-up with 20 reps of a door slide exercise or band external rotation to press.

Potentiation refers to the specific warm-up and focuses on the intensity of activities. This phase incorporates specific activities that progress in intensity until the athlete is performing at the intensity required for the training session. The potentiation phase is often omitted from training sessions. It is common to see an athlete proceed from a stretching exercise directly into their first working set of a squat or Olympic lift. This only compromises strength and power output.

There is strong evidence showing high-load dynamic warm-ups enhance subsequent power and strength performance3. The more power necessary for the exercise or activity, the more important the potentiation phase of the warm-up becomes. The objective is to include high-intensity dynamic exercises in order to prepare the nervous system.  Exercises which include short bouts of a high-intensity sprints, jumps or throws are ideal. Again, these warm-up exercises should be targeted to the upcoming session but also address the longer-term requirements of the athlete. A few sets of 2-3 plyometric jumps can be performed before getting under the bar for squats.

Conclusion

Many athletes or fitness enthusiasts are unaware of the optimal structure and performance benefits related to a proper warm-up. The RAMP protocol is a great foundation to structure any warm-up. More importantly, any properly designed warm-up should prepare the body for the subsequent training session and also assist in the long-term development of the athlete. If you are looking for performance gains for your next training sessions and the long-term, get serious about warming-up.

References

  1. Behm, D. G., Blazevich, A. J., Kay, A. D., & McHugh, M. (2016). Acute effects of muscle stretching on physical performance, range of motion, and injury incidence in healthy active individuals: A systematic review. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 41, 1–11.
  2. Haff, G.G., Triplett, N.T. (2016). Essentials of strength training and conditioning (4th ed). Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics.
  3. McCrary, J. M., Ackermann, B. J., & Halaki, M. (2015). A systematic review of the effects of upper body warm-up on performance and injury. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49, 935–942. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-094228