Low back pain is the most common cause of disability and lost work time in industrialized countries. Persistent low back pain is characterized by periods of high and low pain intensity which can persist for years. Periodic “flare- ups” are common and often result in the seeking of medical treatment. Medications and surgery are often ineffective and may be harmful in some situations. Physical therapy is a non-invasive treatment approach which is often considered in those with persistent low back pain. However, improvements are often short-term for those with longstanding pain. Similar to surgery and medications, the long-term success of physical therapy treatments for chronic back pain is questionable.
Traditional approaches utilizing physical therapy involve a short, but intense course of treatment such as 12 visits over a 4 to 8 week period. However, this type of treatment approach is likely insufficient to positively influence a person’s beliefs and behaviors about their pain. Changing these beliefs and behaviors are crucial if an individual with persistent pain is to self-manage through physical activity and lifestyle changes.
Persistent Low Back Pain is Complex
When pain persists beyond expected time frames, changes occur within our nervous system. These changes include abnormal pain processing pathways and poor execution of movement patterns. Because the nervous system is so complex, individual “pain experiences” vary greatly among those with persistent low back pain. Diagnostic tests and scans, including MRI, are of little help because the primary problem is in the nervous system, not the low back.
The low back muscles of those with persistent pain undergo substantial changes over time. This is believed to be caused by changes in the central nervous system. These changes include atrophy (loss of muscle) and deposits of fatty tissue in the place of the lost muscle. In particular the lumbar multifidus muscle has been shown to be selectively atrophied in many, but not all, individuals with persistent back pain. Not only does the structure of muscle change with long-standing pain, but so does the nervous system’s ability to activate certain muscles. Some muscles may become underactive while others become overactive. These patterns differ among individuals with back pain making symptoms highly variable. A common strategy is when many muscles of the low back contract simultaneously resulting in an unhelpful stiffening or bracing of the trunk.
Persistent Low Back Pain & Exercise
Altered pain processing pathways in the nervous system and changes in the back muscles leads to difficulty learning low back exercises. A long term stimulus is likely needed to overcome atrophy of spinal muscles and to regain proper muscle function. Performing low back exercise several times per week for 1 to 2 months is not adequate dosage. Therefore, those with persistent pain may require repeated practice for several months in order to master the most basic of exercises.
In order to restore normal movement patterns exercise prescription must be matched to the individual’s beliefs and functional problems. Ongoing types of cognitive interventions, such as education about the science of pain are beneficial to facilitate participation in exercise and physical activity. An emphasis on education and a gradual progression of physical activity then becomes the long-term treatment.
The Role of the Physical Therapist in Helping Those with Persistent Low Back Pain
A recent episode of low back pain often responds well to manual therapy treatments such as mobilization, manipulation, or massage. Sometimes, ice or hot packs can be helpful in these situations. However, passive interventions are of little help for those with persistent pain. Instead, treatments that effectively involve the patient in long-term performance of physical activity are likely to be most valuable. These approaches seek to empower the patient by emphasizing their own preferred types of physical activities which can be progressed and modified as needed over time by the physical therapist.
There is no one-size fits all approach to prescribing exercise for those with persistent low back pain. Core stabilization exercise receives a great deal of attention but this form of treatment is only helpful in some. The same goes for stretching, resistance exercise, and aerobic exercise. All these forms of exercise can be helpful in some but not all. Therefore, the physical therapist and the patient should collaborate to develop an exercise plan which the patient finds enjoyable or preferable. This is the only way the program will be adhered to for the long-term.
Final Thoughts on Physical Therapy for Persistent Low Back Pain
The traditional approach of attending physical therapy sessions 2 to 3 times a week for 4 to 8 weeks is not optimal. Instead, the physical therapist and patient should seek to develop a long-term working relationship over time. Initially, physical therapy sessions may occur multiple times a week but only for a few weeks. Sessions should then be spaced out over time. The physical therapist can assist the patient in progressing or modifying their exercise program at each session.
The physical therapists primary role is as a coach or guide who empowers the individual to self-manage for the long-term. The ultimate goal is for the individual to manage and be prepared for fluctuations in their back pain. Those with persistent back pain are ideally suited to directly access the services of a physical therapist without a physician referral. In these instances, sessions are best when spaced out every few months or as needed.